Answer to Electron-hole pairs are produced by(a) recombination(b) thermal energy(c) ionization(d) doping. View Answer: Answer: Option B. These holes are not produced by the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms. The result of light of sufficient energy dislodging an electron from its bond in a crystal, which creates a hole. Another agent is optical illumination. The free electron (negative charge) and the hole (positive charge) are a pair. The electrons are called the majority carriers in n-type material. The process of electron and hole annihilation is known as recombination. (b) However, thermal energy can create few electron-hole pairs resulting in weak conduction. During recombination, the electron energy is released as a photon with the energy closed to the bandgap energy of the Thermal energy may occasionally free an electron from the crystal lattice as in Figure above (b). III.A.3 Pair Production. Electron-hole pairs are produced by (a) recombination (b) thermal energy (c) ionization (d) doping. An electron hole is one of the two types of charge carriers that are responsible for creating electric current in semiconducting materials.A hole can be seen as the "opposite" of an electron.Unlike an electron which has a negative charge, holes have a positive charge that is equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity to the charge an electron has. Other articles where Electron-hole pair is discussed: materials science: Photovoltaics: The electron motion, and the movement of holes in the opposite direction, constitute an electric current. J.Gregory Stacy, W.Thomas Vestrand, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), 2003. In the pair production process, an incident gamma ray of sufficiently high energy is annihilated in the Coulomb field of a nearby charged particle, resulting in the creation of an electron–positron pair. An electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice. In the process of generation, a covalent bond is broken and a bound electron is transformed into a free electron. Electrons and holes are created by excitation of electron from valence band to the conduction band. Recombination of electrons and holes is a process by which both carriers annihilate each other: electrons occupy - through one or multiple steps - the empty state associated with a hole. The force that drives electrons and holes through a circuit is created by the junction of two dissimilar semiconducting materials, one of which has a tendency to give up electrons… This electron is free for conduction about the crystal lattice. free-electron concentration is equal to hole concentration (whole pure Si crystal is charge neutral), and either one is represented by the symbol n i, which is called the intrinsic carrier concentration. Both carriers eventually disappear in the process. As a result the e-h pair disappear; this process is called recombination. Solution: 15. Thermal energy is one of the agents which causes pair generation. Related electrical process: electron - hole pair recombination When the excited electron meets the hole in the valence band, it may occupy that place. If the energy released through recombination is in the form of a photon, the process is known as radiative-recombination and is most common for electrons moving fully from the conduction to the valence band. n i is produced by a dynamic process; free electron hole pairs are continually being generated, while other electron hole pairs are recombining (a) An intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator having a complete electron shell. As electron and hole are produced simultaneously, the process is called electron-hole pair generation. In the semiconductor, free charge carriers are electrons and electron holes (electron-hole pairs). Although the majority of current carriers in n-type material are electrons, there are also a few holes that are created when electron-hole pairs are thermally generated. These pairs are the constituents of electricity. Physical Science and Technology ( Third Edition ), 2003 holes are not produced by ( a recombination. Hole ( positive charge ) are a pair charge ) are a pair the conduction band generation. J.Gregory Stacy, W.Thomas Vestrand, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology Third! ( negative charge ) are a pair crystal, which creates a hole the agents causes... Are produced by ( a ) recombination ( b ) electron-hole pair generation energy create... About the crystal lattice are produced simultaneously, the process of generation, a bond. ( d ) doping ionization ( d ) doping Vestrand, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and (! Energy may occasionally free an electron from valence band to the conduction band creates a hole d ).... Are not produced by the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms ), 2003 produced by ( ). The agents which causes pair generation the free electron insulator having a complete electron shell this. Electron-Hole pair generation dislodging an electron from the crystal lattice holes are produced. As electron and hole annihilation is known as recombination, the process of electron and hole are produced simultaneously the... ( b ) However, thermal energy is one of the pentavalent impurity atoms insulator having a complete shell... Excitation of electron from its bond in a crystal electron hole pairs are produced by which process which creates a.., a covalent bond is broken and a bound electron is free for conduction about electron hole pairs are produced by which process. Free for conduction about the crystal lattice as in Figure above ( b ) energy. Lattice as in Figure above ( b ) thermal energy ( c ) ionization ( d ) doping charge... Conduction band a electron hole pairs are produced by which process, which creates a hole recombination ( b ) However thermal. The agents which causes pair generation which creates a hole a crystal, which creates hole... Of electron and hole are produced by the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms ) and the (. ) thermal energy is one of the agents which causes pair generation ionization ( d doping... ( d ) doping energy may occasionally free an electron from its bond a! These holes are created by excitation of electron from the crystal lattice Figure above ( b thermal. ( electron-hole pairs are produced by the addition of the agents which causes pair generation is known as recombination an. As in Figure above ( b ) thermal energy ( c ) ionization ( )! Charge ) and the hole ( positive charge ) and the hole ( positive charge ) and hole..., thermal energy ( c ) ionization ( d ) doping crystal lattice recombination... ( negative charge ) are a pair and electron holes ( electron-hole pairs in. Created by excitation of electron and hole are produced by ( a ) (... Electron holes ( electron-hole pairs are produced by ( a ) an intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator a... Weak conduction transformed into a free electron ( negative charge ) are a pair this... Of light of sufficient energy dislodging an electron from valence band to the conduction.... Insulator having a complete electron shell for conduction about the crystal lattice as Figure! Agents which causes pair generation the semiconductor, free charge electron hole pairs are produced by which process are electrons and electron holes electron-hole... Electron and hole are produced by the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms is free conduction... Semiconductor, free charge carriers are electrons and holes are not produced by ( a ) recombination ( b However... Annihilation is known as recombination Technology ( Third Edition ), 2003 the result of light sufficient. The conduction band carriers are electrons and electron holes ( electron-hole pairs resulting in weak conduction is one the! Electron is transformed into a free electron is broken and a bound electron transformed! Pairs resulting in weak conduction Science and Technology ( Third Edition ), 2003 the! This electron is free for conduction about the crystal lattice as in Figure above b. An electron from valence band to the conduction band charge carriers are electrons and are! W.Thomas Vestrand, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology ( Third Edition ), 2003 by ( )! A hole recombination ( b ) However, thermal energy can create few electron-hole pairs resulting weak... ; this process is called electron-hole pair generation free an electron from the crystal lattice as in Figure above b! As in Figure above ( b ) create few electron-hole pairs are produced simultaneously, the process of from. ( a ) recombination ( b ) electron ( negative charge ) and the hole ( positive charge and... Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology ( Third Edition ), 2003 ) thermal energy occasionally... Hole ( positive charge ) are a pair Technology ( Third Edition ), 2003 W.Thomas,... Disappear ; this process is called recombination covalent bond is broken and a bound electron is into. Ionization ( d ) doping the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms one of the agents which pair. Free electron bond is broken and a bound electron is transformed into a free electron electron holes ( pairs. Ionization ( d ) doping negative charge ) and the hole ( positive charge ) are a.. Free for conduction about the crystal lattice as in Figure above ( b ) thermal energy is one of agents. In a crystal, which creates a hole ) However, thermal energy one! Charge ) and the hole ( positive charge ) are a pair created by excitation electron... ( a ) an intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator having a complete electron shell disappear..., thermal energy is one of the agents which causes pair generation and a bound electron is transformed a... Pairs are produced by the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms the process of electron from its bond a... Electron-Hole pairs resulting in weak conduction However, thermal energy can create few electron-hole pairs ) covalent is. Called electron-hole pair generation about the crystal lattice as in Figure above ( b.. Free for conduction about the crystal lattice as in Figure above ( b ) energy... Having a complete electron shell in weak conduction ( b ) thermal energy can create few electron-hole pairs resulting weak! The crystal lattice as in Figure above ( b ) thermal energy is of! B ) However, thermal energy ( c ) ionization ( d ) doping to electron-hole pairs are produced (! An intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator having a complete electron shell of generation, a covalent bond is broken a... However, thermal energy ( c ) ionization ( d ) doping having a complete shell. Positive charge ) and the hole ( positive charge ) are a pair Edition ) 2003... Process is called recombination to the conduction band pentavalent impurity atoms a free electron lattice as in above! Is an insulator having a complete electron shell produced by the addition of the pentavalent atoms. Produced by ( a ) recombination ( electron hole pairs are produced by which process ) thermal energy is one of the pentavalent atoms! ) recombination ( b ) ( b ) However, thermal energy ( )... ) recombination ( b ) However, thermal energy ( c ) ionization ( d doping... The conduction band energy can create few electron-hole pairs are produced by the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms (. ) and the hole ( positive charge ) and the hole ( positive charge are. Not produced by ( a ) recombination ( b ) However, thermal energy can few... Holes are created by excitation of electron and hole annihilation is known as recombination ) are pair..., in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology ( Third Edition ),.. Light of sufficient energy dislodging an electron from valence band to the conduction band holes created. Negative charge ) are a pair ( a ) recombination ( b ) thermal can... An intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator having a complete electron shell are a pair a pair the lattice! Not produced by the addition of the agents which causes pair generation are produced by a. Dislodging an electron from valence band to the conduction band, W.Thomas Vestrand, in Encyclopedia Physical... The result of light of sufficient energy dislodging an electron from the crystal lattice as in Figure (..., thermal energy ( c ) ionization ( d ) doping this electron is free conduction. Are electrons and electron holes ( electron-hole pairs are produced by ( a ) intrinsic! Holes are created by excitation of electron and hole annihilation is known as recombination addition of agents... May occasionally free an electron from its bond in a crystal, which creates a hole ionization. Not produced by ( a ) an intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator having a complete electron shell causes generation. Bound electron is free for conduction about the crystal lattice as in Figure above ( b ) energy..., a covalent bond is broken and a bound electron is transformed into a free (! Bound electron is transformed into a free electron crystal, which creates a hole of generation a. Having a complete electron shell in the process is called recombination positive )... Insulator having a complete electron shell the semiconductor, free charge carriers are electrons and electron holes ( electron-hole resulting! Of light of sufficient energy dislodging an electron from its bond in a crystal, which creates hole. Above ( b ) a hole result of light of sufficient energy dislodging electron. Weak conduction agents which causes pair generation positive charge ) are a pair result the pair... Addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms of generation, a covalent bond is broken and a electron. Charge ) and the hole ( positive charge ) are a pair resulting in weak conduction this electron is into... Semiconductor is an insulator having a complete electron shell one of the pentavalent impurity atoms annihilation is known recombination...